Committee:  United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of  Women

Agenda Item: Gender Based Inequality and Discrimination

Committe Director: İpek Yavuz

Deputy Committe Director: Ilgım Kutlu

Table of Contents

  1. Letter  From Committe Director

  1. Letter From Deputy Committee Director

 

 

  1. The Parliamentary Procedure Basics

 

 

  1. Introduction to the Committee

 

  1. UNWOMEN in Brief

 

 

  1. Agenda Item: Gender based Inequality and Discrimination

 

  1. Term References

 

  1. Introduction to the Agenda Item

 

4.3 Possible Solutions

 

 

  1. Bibliography

 

 

  1. Letter From Committe Director

 

Honorable Delegates of United Nations Entity  for Gender Inequality and the  Empowerment of Women,

I am delighted to serve you as your committee director throughout the two days of FBLMUN 2020. We will be discussing a very important topic which is Gender  Based Inequailty and Discrimination and we will try to find solutions for the  issue. This study guide will provide you some basic knowledge on the topic and explain important aspects of the matter. However be reminded that this study guide will not be enough for your research on your country’s policy. You should conduct further research, in order to find your country’s view on the topics.

Shall any matters of any nature arise, feel to contact me via; yavuzipek03@gmail.com .

I look forward to meeting you all!

Sincerely,

İpek Yavuz

 

  1. Letter From Deputy-Committe Director

 

Highly distinguished participants of United Nations Entity for Gender Inequality and Empowerment of Women,

 It is a pleasure for me to be a part of this great conference as the Deputy Committee Director for this committee. Gender inequality is one of the most important problems in our world and this is one of the main reason that it should be discussed on and needs to find solutions upon the near future. Considering these conditions I hope that we are going to come up with effective and beneficial solutions and spend these 2 days with the most efficacy for both the delegates and the committe board.

I am looking forward to see you at Fen Bilimleri Anatolian High School on 14-15 March 2020.

In case of if you have any furhter questions upon the topic and the conference, you can contact me via; ilgimkutlu@gmail.com

 

 

  1. The Parliamentary Procedure Basics

 

Speaker’s List: add yourself if you wish to speak on the topic. If you are on the

docket, you are automatically added. When on the Speaker’s List, you may yield

your time one of three ways:

 

• To the chair: Chair absorbs the rest of your time.

• To questions: Others delegates may ask you up to three questions,

• To another delegate: Another delegate may speak for the rest of your time.

 

Caucuses:

• Moderated Caucus: a way to hear from multiple delegates for short periods of time;

set a total speakers time, an individual delegate speaking time, and a topic.

• Unmoderated Caucus: unregulated time to work on super-resolutions; stay on task.

 

Points:

• Point of Order*: Used if a delegate incorrectly uses parliamentary procedure.

• Point of Inquiry: Used to ask questions about parliamentary or clarify what is going

on.

• Point of Personal Privilege*: Used when a delegate feels a physical discomfort or not

being able to hear another delegate’s speech.

*You may interrupt the speaker for these points

 

Introductions:

• Amendments: In order to change or add anything to resolution already introduced, you

must send it to the dais and then move to introduce it.

• Resolution: %25 of the committee must be signatories, then send it to the dais and move

to introduce it.

Ways to Vote:

• Simple Placard Vote: Delegates raise their placards to cast their

vote.

• Roll Call Vote: The chair will take roll and each country will say

their response

 

 

  1. Introduction to the Committee

 

 3.1 UNWOMEN in Brief

UN Women is the United Nations entity dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women. A global champion for women and girls, UN Women was established to accelerate progress on meeting their needs worldwide.

 

UN Women supports UN Member States as they set global standards for achieving gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes and services needed to ensure that the standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit women and girls worldwide. It works globally to make the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals a reality for women and girls and stands behind women’s equal participation in all aspects of life, focusing on four strategic priorities:

 

 

UN Women also coordinates and promotes the UN system’s work in advancing gender equality, and in all deliberations and agreements linked to the 2030 Agenda. The entity works to position gender equality as fundamental to the Sustainable Development Goals, and a more inclusive world.

 

 

4.Agenda Item: Gender Based Inequality and Discrimination

 

4.1Term references

 

Gender Equality:  Gender Equality means that women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is therefore the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society.

 

Women’s Empowerment: As per un.org: Women's empowerment has five components: women's sense of self-worth; their right to have and to determine choices; their right to have access to opportunities and resources; their right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; and their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally.

 

 Gender Binary: system that classifies all people into one of two genders. This model defines gender roles and identities, impacting all aspects of self-expression. While gender binary has been for long used in societies to divide and organize people, many studies have contested the existence of such division. Such definition, indeed, leaves out any option for people who act outside of their gender role, with emphasis on transgender individuals.

 

Gender Discrimination: Gender discrimination, also known as sexual discrimination, is any action that specifically denies opportunities, privileges, or rewards to a person (or a group) because of gender. The practice of letting a person's gender become a factor when deciding who receives a job or a promotion, is gender discrimination. When gender is a factor in other decisions about employment opportunities or benefits, that too is gender discrimination. While most discrimination charges claim that a woman (or women) was discriminated against in favor of a man (or men), there have also been cases where males have claimed that they have been discriminated against on the basis of gender. These cases are usually referred to as "reverse discrimination."

 

 Gender-Based Violence: Gender discrimination, also known as sexual discrimination, is any action that specifically denies opportunities, privileges, or rewards to a person (or a group) because of gender. The practice of letting a person's gender become a factor when deciding who receives a job or a promotion, is gender discrimination. When gender is a factor in other decisions about employment opportunities or benefits, that too is gender discrimination. While most discrimination charges claim that a woman (or women) was discriminated against in favor of a man (or men), there have also been cases where males have claimed that they have been discriminated against on the basis of gender. These cases are usually referred to as "reverse discrimination."

Gender gap: Discrepancy between men and women in the areas of health, education, political empowerment, and economic empowerment

 

 

4.2Introduction to the Agenda Item

 

Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's lived experience. These differences arise from distinctions in biology, psychology, and cultural norms. Some of these distinctions are empirically grounded while others appear to be socially constructed. Studies show the different lived experience of genders across many domains including education, life expectancy, personality, interests, family life, careers, and political affiliations. Gender inequality is experienced differently across cultures.

 

Status of Women

Gender equality is not only a basic human right, but its achievement has enormous socio-economic ramifications. Empowering women fuels thriving economies, spurring productivity and growth. Yet gender inequalities remain deeply entrenched in every society. Women lack access to decent work and face occupational segregation and gender wage gaps. They are too often denied access to basic education and health care. Women in all parts of the world suffer violence and discrimination. They are under-represented in political and economic decision-making processes. 

 

Historical Perspective

For many years, the United Nations faced serious challenges in its efforts to promote gender equality globally, including inadequate funding and no single recognized driver to direct UN activities on gender equality issues. In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly created UN Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, to address such challenges. In doing so, UN Member States took an historic step in accelerating the Organization’s goals on gender equality and the empowerment of women. The creation of UN Women came about as part of the UN reform agenda, bringing together resources and mandates for greater impact. It merges and builds on the important work of four previously distinct parts of the UN system, which focused exclusively on gender equality and women’s empowerment:

 

  • Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)

  • International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)

  • Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI)

  • United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

 

 

Importance of Gender Equality

Gender equality is intrinsically linked to sustainable development and is vital to the realization of human rights for all. The overall objective of gender equality is a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Equality between men and women exists when both sexes are able to share equally in the distribution of power and influence; have equal opportunities for financial independence through work or through setting up businesses; enjoy equal access to education and the opportunity to develop personal ambitions, interests and talents; share responsibility for the home and children and are completely free from coercion, intimidation and gender-based violence both at work and at home.

Within the context of population and development programmes, gender equality is critical because it will enable women and men to make decisions that impact more positively on their own sexual and reproductive health as well as that of their spouses and families. Decision-making with regard to such issues as age at marriage, timing of births, use of contraception, and recourse to harmful practices (such as female genital cutting) stands to be improved with the achievement of gender equality.

However it is important to acknowledge that where gender inequality exists, it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources. Therefore a critical aspect of promoting gender equality is the empowerment of women, with a focus on identifying and redressing power imbalances and giving women more autonomy to manage their own lives. This would enable them to make decisions and take actions to achieve and maintain their own reproductive and sexual health. Gender equality and women’s empowerment do not mean that men and women become the same; only that access to opportunities and life changes is neither dependent on, nor constrained by, their sex.

 

 

Causes of Gender Inequality

 

Male Child Factor

In the society of proposed area, male child is preferred over female child. Most of the families prefer to have male child rather than female child. Similarly, girls are often denied their fundamental rights such as education, food, health and marriage. As a result, girls are facing social and economic confrontations.

The most havoc social problem faced by woman in this society is honor killing. Society considers woman inferior to man and that’s why, people don’t hesitate to kill woman rather man in the name of honor killing. 

 

Economic Dependency

Women are totally dependent on sympathy of men. Women don’t possess any right of ownership of any property. Even, women have no right to earn money for their livelihood. The expensive of basic necessities such as food, cloth and health are fulfilled by men. That’s why; women are totally relied on sympathy of men. Owing to, weak financial position of women, they are vulnerable to become victim of honor killing. In the study area except Shikarpur town, out of 100 only 7 to 8 women are engaged in formal occupation, while 92 to 93 women are housewives or engaged in informal occupation such as livestock and agriculture. Moreover, 99% of the property is owned by men and only 1% ownership of property belongs to women in the study area. This economic weakness of women leads them to become victim of honor killing.

 

Forced marriages

The study in the proposed area also revealed that women have no say in decision of her marriage. Even, woman cannot say a name of man to whom she wants to marry. If she does so, she will be killed in the name of honor killing. On the contrary, man has got full authority to choose his partner. He has right to decide his marriage and give his decision about his marriage, while, woman has no such right. The decision of her marriage is taken by her father, brother and uncle and their decision is final. Similarly, she is bound to obey their decision. If she declines, she will be killed in the name of honor killing. Our study revealed that 25 to 30% honor killing taking place due to this issue.

 

Illiteracy

Mass illiteracy among woman is also main cause of honor killing. Our study revealed that only 25.3 women are literate. While, 75% women are illiterate and among illiterate women about 60% don’t know to write their names, besides, the illiteracy rate is found much higher in after 30 years old women, it stands at 90%. Illiterate women don’t know their rights that have been granted to them by law. As a result, most of the women are living in desperate condition. Owing to illiteracy, women are unable to raise their voice against heinous social crime, to reach court for justice and to fight against honor killing. As a result, women vulnerability to honor killing and other social crimes is much higher.

 

 

Aspects of Gender Inequality and Discrimination

 “Gender inequality and discrimination ” are terms that open up to a vast area of studies that can be divided in four areas of concern: Economy, Society, Education, Health.

 

Economy

There are considerable differences in women's and men's access to and opportunities to exert power over economic structures in their societies. In most parts of the world, women are virtually absent from or are poorly represented in economic decision-making, including the formulation of financial, monetary, commercial and other economic policies, as well as tax systems and rules governing pay.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

More than 1 billion in the world today, the great majority of whom are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing countries. Poverty has various causes, including structural ones. Poverty is a complex, multidimensional problem, with origins in both the national and international domains.

Women in poverty face extreme difficulties: more than 1.3 billion women don't have any financial involvement in institutions. This includes banks, cooperatives, credit unions, post offices, and micro finance institutions. Women in poverty are unable to pay for their education resulting in their children being forced into poverty when they grow up. Furthermore the issues builds up on the fact that children from poverty stricken couples end up earlier in sweatshops and heavy labour jobs at an early age thus depriving them of the fundamental education received by children from financially stable couples.

Women play an important role in a poverty stricken family. Since the family cannot afford certain services such as laundry or household help, it's the women that have to cope with all the chores. Furthermore the women have to financially support their families as well and in certain cases employ into illegal or socially unacceptable jobs such as being self employed for local drug dealers or end up as a sex worker. More than men it's the women that pay a heavier casualty when placed in poverty and are much more difficult to escape the cycle. In addition to these issues women who don't have a proper education end up in a lower pay than men, which again contributes to the factor of poverty. Women from minority groups face additional difficulties because they are looked down on due to their racial profile.

 

Society

“The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to take part in the Government of his/her country. The empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of women’s social, economic and political status is essential for the achievement of both transparent and accountable government and administration and sustainable development in all areas of life.” (from the Directory of UN Resources on Gender and Women’s Issues)

According to the Women’s Empowerment Principles (UN Women), ‘Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to build stronger economies, achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability, and improve the quality of life for women, men, families and communities.’ To achieve this goal, it is important societies understand the role that women undertake in power and decision-making.

It is evident how society has changed when it comes to women in power: while past numbers gave more importance to lack of ability than anything else (perhaps with the exception of traditional thinking regarding women’s role in the home, and not working outside), today the problem resides in lack of regulation when it comes to hiring women, and opportunities in career advancement. It is currently argued if, and in that case how, a system can be put in place such that the two genders are treated fairly; while some defend a quota system others argue its lack of efficiency (and question if someone shouldn’t be hired should the quota be already filled, discriminating by gender and reversing the process to unfairness, which is what it aimed to overtake in the first place). However, and while methodology is argued over, the remark that measures should be put in place to reverse the situation and ensure women are represented fairly, both by governments and the private sector, sustains itself more than ever.

 

Education

“Education is human right and an essential tool for achieving the goals of equality, development and peace. Non-discriminatory education benefits both girls and boys and thus ultimately contributes to more equal relationships between women and men.” (from the Directory of Un Resources on Gender and Women’s Issues)

The gender gap in education are the lack of sanitation facilities, sexual violence and forced child marriages, negative classroom environments where girls may face exploitation or corporal punishment and a lack of female teachers. Recent estimates show that one-third of girls in the developing world are married before age 18, and one-third of women in the developing world give birth before age 20.

Significant change in the numbers when it comes to education can be achieved through cultural changes, better infrastructures and an infinity of other means. One of those is compulsory education, a period of education imposed by law. While some kind of schooling is mandatory to all people in most countries, the requirements vary from country to country. Most countries have their school leaving age set at the same of the minimum full-employment age while others have several years between those two, running the risk of giving children the possibility of leaving school too early to acquire a sufficient amount of general knowledge.

 

Health

“Women have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The enjoyment of this right is vital to their life and well-being their ability to participate in all areas of public and private life.” (from the Directory of Un Resources on Gender and Women’s Issues)

 The primacy of a woman’s biological and reproductive role is a product of societal and cultural norms world over. Because women are still defined as instruments in terms of child bearing and familial responsibilities, it limits and causes a huge setback in according a sense of equal treatment between genders. If social rights are defined as those basic fundamentals that allow a sense of full participation in the life of a society, women are severely lacking in this right. But one must understand that women and men are both subject to gender discrimination in respective regions, being either patriarchal or matriarchal, with their respective social conformities and cultural practices.

 

 

Effects of Gender Inequality

Gender inequality affects everyone, including men. Stereotypes or ‘rules’ about how women and men, girls and boys should be begin in childhood and follow us through to adulthood.

Not everyone experiences inequality the same way. The situation is worse, and often different, for people who face more than one type of discrimination.

 

Children

  • Gender stereotypes affect children's sense of self from a young age.

  • Boys receive more attention in the classroom than girls.

  • Girls receive  less pocket money than boys.

  • Children classify jobs and activities as specific to boys or girls.

Young People

  • Gender stereotypes affect behaviour, study choices, ambitions and attitudes about relationships.

  • Girls are less likely to take part in organised sport.

  • Girls are less likely to do advanced maths subjects in their final years of school.

Adults

  • Although more women than men complete tertiary education, their graduate salaries are lower.

  • 1 in every 2 mothers experiences discrimination during pregnancy, on parental leave or when returning to work.

  •  Women do nearly twice as much unpaid work as men.

Older People

  • Women retire with half the superannuation savings of men.

  • This affects women's financial security, health and wellbeing. 

  • More older women are at risk of homelessness than men.

Rural and Regional Women

  • Women living outside of metropolitan areas often do not have access to public services.

  • They are at greater risk of poor health outcomes and family violence.

 

 

 

4.3Questions That Should Be Answered

  • What are the main issues of gender inequality?

  • What are the different types of gender inequality?

  • What are possible solutions to reduce gender inequality and discrimination?

  • How gender inequality and discrmination affect society?

 

 

 

Benefical Websites For The Topic

 

 

 

5.Bibliography